Sustainability Strategies for Secondary Dual Language Programs: Finding Secondary Dual Language Teachers

One of the greatest threats to a secondary dual language (DL) program is its sustainability. As secondary education programs differ from elementary programs in structure and implementation, the various aspects of the program that can threaten its sustainability include small cohorts, finding secondary DL teachers, identifying and/or creating DL courses that are taught in the partner language, and securing partner language curriculum for each DL course. In this, the second of four installments on sustainability strategies for secondary DL programs, we will examine the challenge of finding secondary DL teachers and its impact on a secondary DL program, as well as explore potential ways to be proactive to minimize its impact. 

The Impact of Finding Secondary DL Teachers on the Sustainability of Secondary DL Programs 

Finding secondary teachers who are biliterate in the partner language and who are credentialed, authorized, or endorsed (depending on your state teacher credentialing requirements; henceforth, authorized) is one of the greatest threats to the sustainability of your secondary DL program. The threat is two-fold: not having the secondary DL teachers needed will limit the courses that can be offered in the partner language and by doing so, may either change your DL program to a developmental bilingual education program (as at least two courses need to be offered at each grade level in the partner language to remain a DL program; Lindholm-Leary, 2000) or cause the secondary DL program to cease altogether.  

Proactively Addressing Finding Secondary DL Teachers  

There are several strategies that together form a cohesive approach to finding secondary DL teachers to avoid the threat to your program’s sustainability. These include reviewing and updating the secondary teacher job description, starting recruitment early, tapping into the pool of district secondary teachers, identifying the courses that will be taught in the partner language to determine the number of DL teachers that will be needed, recruiting out-of-district teachers, and supporting teachers as they prepare to teach in the secondary DL program. 

Reviewing and Updating the Secondary Teacher Job Description 

To begin the process of finding teachers for your secondary DL program, it is recommended that you first review the secondary teacher job description. If there was a previous bilingual program at the secondary level, start with that job description. Many districts have a generic secondary teacher job description (one that is not specific to a content area) while others have content-specific ones. If your district has content-specific job descriptions, then you will want to review the ones for the content areas that will be taught in the partner language. Early on, you may not be sure which content area[s] will be taught in the partner language; if this is the case, select several content areas that may be under consideration to review (more information on how to select the courses for your program will come in the next installment of this series on secondary DL programs).  

In the existing job descriptions, you will want to look for, and include if not found, whether the applicant is required to be biliterate, possessing high levels of literacy in English and the partner language, including listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The reasons for this are many, including having the highest quality teachers for your secondary DL program. Most importantly, if being biliterate is only recommended or preferred and not required, then based on the certificated bargaining unit agreement, the teacher may not be evaluated with regard to their proficiency or ability to teach in the partner language. This could potentially limit the district’s ability to require a DL teacher to improve their level of literacy in the partner language and thus keep the teacher in the DL program who cannot provide the level of academic language that is required for instruction at the secondary level, which would potentially impact the academic and partner language development of the DL students.  

If the job descriptions need revision, collaborate with Human Resources, as there may be a protocol or process for moving the revisions forward for district approval. Once approved, then a question that will need to be answered by Human Resources is if current district teachers who are selected to teach in the DL program will have to go through an interview before moving from their current job description to the new job description. Knowing this in advance will be important when developing the teacher recruitment plan for the secondary DL program.  

The revised job descriptions should also drive a review of the secondary teacher interview process. With the focus on the level of biliteracy of the applicants, it is recommended that a portion of the interview be conducted in the partner language. Thus, it will be important that a native speaker of the partner language be included on the interview panel. This person can ask the designated questions in the partner language, to which the applicant should respond in the partner language. After the applicant leaves the room, this panel member can share the applicant’s response to the questions with others on the panel and provide their evaluation of the applicant’s level of proficiency and fluency in the partner language. 

In addition to the oral portion of the interview, it is recommended that the applicant also complete a writing prompt in the partner language to provide input for the interview panel on their level of reading and writing in the partner language. The writing prompt should require that the applicant read a short text and respond to an open-ended question that requires comprehension of the text, both literal and inferential. This allows the applicant to demonstrate their level of academic language use in their writing. The short text should be at a sufficient level to challenge the applicant at the secondary level.  

For the partner language writing prompt, some districts use a released Advanced Placement exam question in the partner language, which includes the reading text an open-ended question at the level of rigor expected at the secondary level. A bonus is that the released test questions also come with a rubric to score the applicant’s written response.  

Please note that applicants should not be asked to translate a school flyer for the partner language writing prompt. Translating flyers is not the type of work that they will be engaging in when teaching in the secondary DL program and will not give the panel the information they need to select the most highly qualified applicant for the DL teaching position.  

The applicant should also be asked to complete a writing prompt in English to demonstrate their level of reading and writing in English. It is recommended that the prompt ask them to reflect on their opinion of the value of biliteracy. In your secondary DL program, you want teachers who fully support the goals of the program. In some districts’ certificated bargaining unit agreements, those who teach in a program requiring a special authorization (such as DL) are assigned to a different seniority list than those teaching in the mainstream English program, which may prove valuable in the event of a reduction in force action by the district. Due to this potential protection that the DL program may offer, the applicant’s motive should be their strong belief in the value of biliteracy not just to provide themselves with shelter during a reduction in force. The applicant’s written response should provide some insight into their disposition for the interview panel to consider.  

Starting Recruitment Early 

An interesting fact regarding recruiting teachers for a DL program is that the recruitment window begins much earlier than for teachers in the mainstream English program. In many states, the recruitment window for DL teachers begins as early as October/November, with the majority of the available DL teachers signed to contracts by the end of February. This includes teachers who are currently working in a DL program and those who will be completing their authorization by the end of the school year.  

For current secondary DL programs, we recommend a conversation with Human Resources and your certificated bargaining unit to seek approval to begin recruitment for any openings in your secondary DL program to be competitive during this early recruitment window.  

For soon-to-be middle school/junior high school DL programs, we recommend starting the planning and recruitment process as the secondary DL program, as early as 3 years before the students will reach middle school/junior high school (e.g., when the students in the elementary DL program enter 2nd grade [if the elementary school only goes through 5th grade] or 3rd grade [for elementary schools that go through 6th grade]). This will provide 3 years for the recruitment process, with the goal of fully staffing the middle school/junior high school DL program by its first year of implementation.  

For soon-to-be high school DL programs, we recommend starting the recruitment process as soon as the middle school/junior high school DL program begins. This will provide 2-3 years for the recruitment process, with the goal of fully staffing the high school DL program by its first year of implementation, as well.  

For the soon-to-be secondary DL programs, starting the recruiting process early will support the hiring of DL teachers as openings occur through attrition (e.g., teachers retiring, moving to another district/state, moving to administration), lessening the possibility of displacing teachers at the DL sites. This may mean hiring a DL teacher a year or two before the DL students arrive on campus. As each DL teacher will also be credentialed to teach in the mainstream English program, they will be a valuable addition to any department on campus. To further reduce the possibility of teacher displacement, we recommend tapping into the pool of district secondary teachers before recruiting from outside the district. 

Tap into the Pool of District Secondary Teachers 

It is recommended that you collaborate with Human Resources to identify all district secondary teachers with the authorization necessary to teach their content area in the partner language as well as those who are biliterate (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) in the partner language but do not yet possess the authorization. 

Invite these teachers to join you for a meeting to learn about the plans for the upcoming secondary DL program. For those who are biliterate in the partner language but do not yet possess the authorization to teach in the DL program, consider supporting them in earning the authorization prior to the start of the program. In many states, the authorization can be earned through university coursework, standardized assessments, or a combination of the two. Support could include reimbursing teachers for passing the required courses and/or assessments. From this meeting, create an interest list so that you can keep in touch with the teachers as the plans for the secondary DL program move forward. 

The year prior to the implementation of the secondary DL program, review the interest list and reconnect with the teachers to determine if they are still interested in teaching at the site(s) where the secondary DL program will be located. Encourage those teachers who are still working on their authorization to complete the requirements by the end of the first semester to provide you the opportunity to confirm those who are authorized and interested in teaching in the secondary DL program.  

Working with Human Resources and the secondary DL site administrators, identify how many openings and in what department those openings will occur for the upcoming school year, the first year of the implementation of the secondary DL program. Based on this information, along with what courses will be taught in the partner language, you will be able to determine if there are sufficient resources among the pool of district secondary teachers or whether recruiting out-of-district teachers will be necessary.  

But first, consider what courses will be taught in the partner language. You will need teachers who are credentialed to teach in those respective content areas and also possess the authorization to teach them in the partner language to fully staff your upcoming secondary DL program. 

Identifying the Courses that will be Taught in the Partner Language to Determine How Many DL Teachers Will Be Needed 

To finalize the recruitment of district and/or out-of-district teachers for your secondary DL program, it will be necessary to identify the courses that will be taught in the partner language at each grade level. The next installment of this series of articles on secondary DL programs will explore this topic in much greater depth, but for the purpose of this example, we will assume that one of the courses will be a partner language arts course and the other course will be history (this will be determined by your elementary language allocation plan) as a minimum of two courses are required to be considered a DL program, not a developmental bilingual education program (which is what it will become if only one course is offered; Lindholm-Leary, 2000).  

The partner language arts course will likely be taught by a world languages teacher. If there are no world language teachers that teach the partner language already assigned to the middle school/junior high school site(s) where the DL program will be located, then there will have to be a position created for the teacher(s).  

The history course will have to be taught by a secondary teacher with a history credential and the authorization to teach in the partner language. At the middle school/junior high school level, there may be the possibility of an elementary DL teacher being assigned to teach the courses, as many states have a provision that allows K-8 teachers to teach at that level. This may require strategic course planning, as these states may require that a K-8 teacher teach, for example, a language arts course and a history course to the same group of students each day (often called “coring” or “core teaching”). Conversely, the teacher may teach math and science to the same group of students each day.  

So, for example, two teachers would be needed the first year: a world languages teacher to teach the partner language arts course and a teacher who is credentialed to teach history and who possesses the authorization to teach it in the partner language. Or perhaps one K-8 credentialed teacher who would teach partner language arts, English language arts, and history. But the question looms…how many teachers would we need for each ensuing year of the secondary DL program for each of these possibilities? Consider the example cohorts and schedules shared in Tables 1-12, below. 

Some caveats to consider: 

  1. If there were more than 35 in a year’s cohort (typically the class size maximum at secondary), then additional course offerings would need to be added to the master schedule and likely will mean that additional teachers will need to be hired.
  2. If the secondary DL program opts to offer more than 2 courses in the partner language, then more teachers would need to be hired and the sample schedules revised to reflect the additional courses. 

Table 1: DL Cohorts by Year of Entry to Middle School/Junior High School and High School 

Sample Middle School/Junior High School 
 Year of Implementation:  Total # of DL students in 6th grade  Total # of DL students in 7th grade  Total # of DL students in 8th grade  Total # of DL students at school   
Year 1  35 

Group A 

    35   
Year 2  35 

Group B 

35 

Group A 

  70   
Year 3  35 

Group C 

35 

Group B 

35 

Group A 

105   
Sample High School   
 Year of Implementation:  Total # of DL students in 9th grade  Total # of DL students in 10th grade  Total # of DL students in 11th grade  Total # of DL students in 12th grade  Total # of DL students at school 
Year 1  35 

Group A 

      35 
Year 2  35 

Group B 

35 

Group A 

    70 
Year 3  35 

Group C 

35 

Group B 

35 

Group A 

  105 
Year 4  35 

Group D 

35 

Group C 

35 

Group B 

35 

Group A 

140 

 

Table 2: Possible Middle School/Junior High School DL Teacher Schedule Year 1, Option 1  

Option 1: 2 DL teachers:  

  • 1 with a World Languages credential for the partner language (this teacher would have at least 2 preps) 
  • 1 with a history credential with an authorization to teach in the partner language (this teacher would have at least 2 preps) 

Teacher 1:
World Language (WL)
Partner Language Arts (PLA) 

Teacher 2:
History 

1. PLA (Group A)  1. History in English  
2. WL  2. History in the partner language (Group A) 
3. WL  3. History in English 
4. WL  4. History in English 
5. WL  5. History in English 
6. Prep  6. Prep 

 

Table 3: Possible Middle School/Junior High School DL Teacher Schedule Year 1, Option 2  

Option 2: 1 DL teacher: With a K-8 credential (in some states) who is authorized to teach in the partner language; this teacher would have 4 preps, which is beyond most certificated bargaining unit agreements and would likely be a factor in retaining this teacher. 

Teacher 1:
English Language Arts (ELA)
Partner Language Arts (PLA)
History 

1. PLA (Group A) 
2. History in the partner language (Group A) 
3. ELA (Group A) 
4. ELA (a non-DL group; same grade level as Group A) 
5. History in English (same non-DL group) 
6. Prep 

 

Table 4: Possible Middle School/Junior High School DL Teacher Schedules Year 2, Option 1  

Option 1: 2 DL teachers:  

  • 1 with a World Languages credential for the partner language (this teacher would have at least 3 preps) 
  • 1 with a history credential with an authorization to teach in the partner language (this teacher would have at least 3 preps) 
Teacher 1:
World Language (WL)
Partner Language Arts (PLA) 

Teacher 2:
History 

1. PLA (Group A)  1. History in the partner language (Group B) 
2. PLA (Group B)  2. History in the partner language (Group A) 
3. WL  3. History in English 
4. WL  4. History in English 
5. WL  5. History in English 
6. Prep  6. Prep 

Table 5: Possible Middle School/Junior High School DL Teacher Schedules Year 2, Option 2  

Option 2: 2 DL teachers: Each with a K-8 credential (in some states) who is authorized to teach in the partner language; these teachers would have 4 preps each, which would likely be a factor in retaining them. 

Teacher 1:
English Language Arts (ELA)
Partner Language Arts (PLA)
History 

Teacher 2:
English Language Arts (ELA)
Partner Language Arts (PLA)
History 

1. PLA (Group A)  1. PLA (Group B) 
2. ELA (Group A)   2. ELA (Group B) 
3. History in the partner language (Group A)  3. History in the partner language (Group B) 
4. ELA (non-DL group; same grade as Group A)  4. ELA (non-DL group; same grade as Group B) 
5. History in English (same non-DL group)  5. History in English (same non-DL group) 
6. Prep  6. Prep 

 

Table 6: Possible Middle School/Junior High School DL Teacher Schedules Year 3, Option 1 

Option 1: 2 DL teachers:  

  • 1 with a World Languages credential for the partner language (this teacher would have at least 4 preps, which would likely be a factor in retaining this teacher) 
  • 1 with a history credential with an authorization to teach in the partner language (this teacher would have at least 4 preps, which would likely be a factor in retaining this teacher) 

Teacher 1:
World Language (WL)
Partner Language Arts (PLA) 

Teacher 2:
History 

1. PLA (Group A)  1. History in the partner language (Group B) 
2. PLA (Group B)  2. History in the partner language (Group C) 
3. PLA (Group C)  3. History in the partner language (Group A) 
4. WL  4. History in English 
5. WL  6. History in English 
7. Prep  7. Prep 

Table 7: Possible Middle School/Junior High School DL Teacher Schedules Year 2, Option 2 

Option 2: 3 DL teachers: Each with a K-8 credential (in some states) who is authorized to teach in the partner language; these teachers would have 4 preps, which would likely be a factor in retaining them. 

Teacher 1: 
English Language Arts (ELA)
Partner Language Arts (PLA)
History 

Teacher 2: 
English Language Arts (ELA)
Partner Language Arts (PLA)
History 

1. PLA (Group A)  1. PLA (Group B) 
2. ELA (Group A)   2. ELA (Group B) 
3. History in the partner language (Group A)  3. History in the partner language (Group B) 
4. ELA (non-DL group; same grade as Group A)  4. ELA (non-DL group; same grade as Group B) 
5. History in English (same non-DL group)  5. History in English (same non-DL group) 
6. Prep  6. Prep 

 

Teacher 3:
English Language Arts (ELA)
Partner Language Arts (PLA)
History 

1. PLA (Group C) 
2. ELA (Group C)  
3. History in the partner language (Group C) 
4. ELA (non-DL group; same grade as Group C) 
5. History in English (same non-DL group) 
6. Prep 

 

Table 8: Possible High School DL Teacher Schedule Year 1  

2 DL teachers:  

  • 1 with a World Languages credential for the partner language (this teacher would have at least 2 preps) 
  • 1 with a history credential with an authorization to teach in the partner language (this teacher would have at least 2 preps) 

Teacher 1:
World Language (WL)
Partner Language Arts (PLA) 

Teacher 2:
History 

1. PLA (Group A)  1. History in English  
2. WL  2. History in the partner language (Group A) 
3. WL  3. History in English 
4. WL  4. History in English 
5. WL  5. History in English 
6. Prep  6. Prep 

 

Table 9: Possible High School DL Teacher Schedule Year 2  

2 DL teachers:  

  • 1 with a World Languages credential for the partner language (this teacher would have at least 3 preps) 
  • 1 with a history credential with an authorization to teach in the partner language (this teacher would have at least 3 preps) 

Teacher 1:
World Language (WL)
Partner Language Arts (PLA) 
Teacher 2:
History 
1. PLA (Group A)  1. History in the partner language (Group B) 
2. PLA (Group B)  2. History in the partner language (Group A) 
3. WL  3. History in English 
4. WL  4. History in English 
5. WL  5. History in English 
6. Prep  6. Prep 

Table 10: Possible High School DL Teacher Schedules Year 3  

2 DL teachers:  

  • 1 with a World Languages credential for the partner language (this teacher would have at least 4 preps, which would likely be a factor in retaining this teacher) 
  • 1 with a history credential with an authorization to teach in the partner language (this teacher would have at least 4 preps, which would likely be a factor in retaining this teacher) 

Teacher 1:
World Language (WL)
Partner Language Arts (PLA) 
Teacher 2:
History 
1. PLA (Group A)  1. History in the partner language (Group B) 
2. PLA (Group B)  2. History in the partner language (Group C) 
3. PLA (Group C)  3. History in the partner language (Group A) 
4. WL  4. History in English 
5. WL  5. History in English 
6. Prep  6. Prep 

Table 11: Possible High School DL Teacher Schedules Year 4, Option 1  

Option 1: 2 DL teachers:  

  • 1 with a World Languages credential for the partner language (this teacher would have 5 preps, which is beyond what most certificated bargaining unit agreements allow, and would likely be a factor in retaining this teacher) 
  • 1 with a history credential with an authorization to teach in the partner language (this teacher would have 5 preps, which is beyond what most certificated bargaining unit agreements allow, and would likely be a factor in retaining this teacher) 

Teacher 1:
World Language (WL)
Partner Language Arts (PLA) 
Teacher 2:
History 
1. PLA (Group A)  1. History in the partner language (Group D) 
2. PLA (Group B)  2. History in the partner language (Group C) 
3. PLA (Group C)  3. History in the partner language (Group B) 
4. PLA (Group D)  4. History in the partner language (Group A) 
5. WL  5. History in English 
6. Prep  6. Prep 

Table 12: Possible High School DL Teacher Schedules Year 4, Option 2  

Option 2: 4 DL teachers:  

  • 2 with a World Languages credential for the partner language (each teacher would have at least 3 preps) 
  • 2 with a history credential with an authorization to teach in the partner language (each teacher would have at least 3 preps) 

Teacher 1:
World Language (WL)
Partner Language Arts (PLA) 
Teacher 2:
History 
1. PLA (Group A)  1. History in the partner language (Group D) 
2. PLA (Group B)  2. History in the partner language (Group C) 
3. WL  3. History in English 
4. WL  4. History in English 
5. WL  5. History in English 
6. Prep  6. Prep 

 

Teacher 3:
World Language (WL)
Partner Language Arts (PLA) 
Teacher 4:
History 
1. PLA (Group C)  1. History in English 
2. PLA (Group D)  2. History in English 
3. WL  3. History in the partner language (Group B) 
4. WL  4. History in the partner language (Group A) 
5. WL  5. History in English 
6. Prep  6. Prep 

As is shown in these sample schedules, having at least one teacher in the world languages and history departments that will be offering the courses in the partner language will be needed, but having at least one teacher in every department on campus that is authorized to teach in the partner language would be ideal, as it would allow greater flexibility in offering courses for students to choose from. As students enter secondary, having choices is one of the aspects of course planning that should be taken into consideration to retain students in and sustain the secondary DL program.  

Recruiting Out-of-District Teachers 

If it is determined that there will be openings for secondary DL teachers beyond what the pool of district teachers can fill, then consider the following as you develop a recruitment plan for out-of-district teachers.  

With the revised job descriptions available, you can move forward with the process of posting the position openings (and the job descriptions) on the education job websites, such as Edjoin. The positions can also be posted for free on the duallanguageschools.org website, where you will also find the résumés of teachers looking for positions in DL programs. Other possible resources for finding secondary DL teachers include DL networks, DL conferences, social media, and universities with bilingual authorization programs. 

Be sure to have information regarding the secondary DL program available on the district’s and DL sites’ websites so that potential applicants can see the commitment that the district and the site(s) are making to the program.  

As you may be aware, there is a shortage of DL teachers at the elementary and secondary levels. But the shortage at the secondary level is more extreme, so you will have to be very strategic to attract and hire teachers for your secondary program. It is recommended that you research other districts in your region that have a secondary DL program and find out what incentives, if any, they are offing applicants. The incentives may include cash stipends, signing bonuses, additional release days for DL professional learning, conference attendance, and vertical alignment meetings. Once you have gathered the information, you will likely have to meet or beat what the other districts are offering to attract and hire the most highly qualified applicants for your secondary DL program. 

To hire future secondary DL teachers, consider partnering with your local university that offers a bilingual authorization program. Being able to draw from a pool of newly minted secondary teachers with their authorization to teach in the partner language would enhance the pool of out-of-district teachers to draw from. It is recommended that you share your staffing needs with the dean at the university that oversees the teacher education program to let them know the importance of supporting their bilingual authorization program and that there will be a demand for their students upon completion of the program.  

Once your secondary DL program has been implemented for several years, consider offering placements in your DL program to the student teachers working on their partner language authorization from the local university. It benefits the university, the student teachers, and your secondary DL program to be able to have them on campus and to determine which of them you may want to encourage to apply for any positions that may be opening up in the program. 

Supporting Teachers as They Prepare to Teach in the Secondary DL Program 

A further incentive for applicants to consider joining your secondary DL program is the extent to which support will be provided for them as they move into that teaching role. Professional learning opportunities will be very important to the teachers, often more important than any cash incentives that are offered. Consider the following topics for the professional learning plan for secondary DL teachers. 

  • Dual Language 101 
    • It will be important that all who are involved with the secondary DL program understand the fundamentals of DL and the research related to the development of biliteracy, high academic achievement, and sociocultural competence (the 3 Pillars of DL Education; found in the Guiding Principles for Dual Language Education, 3rd Edition). This will allow all to have common conversations regarding the different aspects as well as the benefits of the DL program. 
  • Academic language development in the partner language 
    • Many teachers who are biliterate have never taught their content area courses in the partner language and may appreciate the opportunity to enhance their academic language, in general, and the academic language of their content area, in particular. 
  • Networking with teachers from other secondary DL programs in the region 
    • Networking will support teachers as they begin their journey as secondary DL teachers by learning from others who are established in their teaching in a secondary DL program. 
    • Check with your local county, regional, or state office of education to see if they know of any DL networks that include secondary teachers 
    • Also check with regional, state, or national bilingual education organizations to learn if they are aware of any DL networks that include secondary teachers 
  • Attend DL conferences with secondary DL strands 
    • Check with regional, state, or national bilingual education organizations to learn if they offer or know of any DL conferences that include a secondary DL strand 
  • Regularly scheduled job-alike and/or vertical articulation meetings for secondary DL teachers 
    • May also include elementary DL teachers  
    • Allows DL-specific conversations regarding the progress of the students in developing all 3 Pillars of DL Education: biliteracy, high academic achievement, and sociocultural competence.  

Conclusion 

Although finding secondary teachers who are biliterate and authorized to teach in the partner language can be a threat to the sustainability of a secondary DL program, being proactive and reviewing and updating the secondary teacher job description, starting recruitment early, tapping into the pool of district secondary teachers, identifying the courses that will be taught in the partner language to determine the number of DL teachers that will be needed, recruiting out-of-district teachers, and supporting teachers as they prepare to teach in the secondary DL program will contribute greatly to the sustainability of your secondary DL program. 

References 

Howard, E. R., Lindholm-Leary, K. J., Rogers, D., Olague, N., Medina, J., Kennedy, D., Sugarman, J., & Christian, D. (2018). Guiding Principles for Dual Language Education (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.  

Lindholm-Leary, Kathryn. “Biliteracy for a Global Society: An Idea Book on Dual Language Education.” (2000). Available at https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED447714.pdf  

 

For more information on staffing your secondary DL program, order a copy of Kris’s newest book, “Fulfilling the Promise of Biliteracy: Creating a Successful and Sustainable Secondary Dual Language Program” from Velázquez Press (due to be released in February 2022).  

Kris Nicholls, Ph.D. 

CEO, Nicholls Educational Consulting 

Kris Nicholls
Author: Kris Nicholls

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